Our guest this week is Swiss historian Dr. Daniele Ganser, author of the seminal book NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism. Buy NATO’s Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe (Contemporary Security Studies) 1 by Ganser Daniele (ISBN: ). For the first time in this book, Daniele Ganser has brought together the full story of the networks the Italians came to call ‘Gladio’. This is a significant and.
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The Italian General confirmed that cooperation with the British had been intense: But still years after the discovery of the top-secret network, the official response, much like inis characterised by silence and denials. Although the governments in Italy’s fragile First Republic had changed in short intervals Andreotti throughout the Cold War had cunningly managed to remain in power in numerous coalitions and had thus established himself as the dominant presence in the Italian government residence at Palazzo Chigi in Rome.
The New York Times. Selected parliamentarians at the time knew that the suggestion was already being implemented. On the other side of the Cold War spectrum also the extreme right resorted to violence.
He was living in comfortable exile in the US, where he maintained links with the Rand Corporation. The atrocities culminated on a sunny afternoon during the Italian national holiday when on August 2, a massive explosion ripped through the waiting room of the second class at the Bologna railway station, killing 85 people in the blast and seriously injuring and maiming a further Likewise Truman was convinced that also in the nominally sovereign democracies of Western Europe the Communist parties had to be secretly fought and weakened.
A parliamentary investigation of the Italian Senate into Gladio and a series of mysterious massacres concluded after the end of the Cold War that ganseg Italy the ‘CIA had enjoyed in times of peace maximum discretion’ because Italy during the First Republic had lived ‘in a difficult and at times tragic situation of frontier’. Weapons were supplied and held in large caches ready for any communist threat. At the stay-behind meetings representatives of the CIA were always present’, Serravalle remembered.
As a sign of intimate cooperation the members of the American Special Forces unit wore the distinctive Green Beret unofficially ever since in order to imitate their SAS idols who had long used that insignia. Daniele Ganser born August 29, in Lugano is a Swiss historian.
Inthe Swedes worked with Finnish Intelligence to set up a stay-behind network of agents within Finland to keep track of post-war activities in that country. Andreotti assured the Senators that he would present a written report to the parliamentary commission on the secret security structure within 60 days: Asked about Gladio’s relations to Francoist Spainhe said that such a network was not necessary under Francosince “the regime itself was Gladio. According to his own testimony, Ganser alleges, he discovered the existence of the secret NATO army, then codenamed “Red Sheepskin”, as acting prime minister in and had given orders to dissolve it.
November and observed that “The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller. For more than a decade the Italian population believed that the Red Brigades had committed the Peteano terrorist attack.
They criticised the United States, the Vietnam Gpadio and above all the distribution of power in Italy, for despite their numerical strength in parliament the PCI was not assigned ministerial positions and hence was deliberately kept outside the government.
Although rumours among the Italian left already at the time gansr it that the mysterious acts of violence represented a form of undeclared secret warfare of the United States against the Italian Communists, the far-fetched theory could not be proven. In the Italian investigating judge Giovanni Tamburino in the course of his investigation into right-wing terrorism in Italy had taken the unprecedented step of arresting General Vito Miceli, the chief of the Italian military ganesr service SID on the charge of ‘promoting, setting up, and organising, together with gadio, a secret association of military and civilians aimed at provoking an armed insur- rection to bring about an illegal change in the constitution of the state and the form of government’.
Lawrence Kaplan wrote a mixed review commending Ganser for making “heroic efforts to tease out the many strands that connect this interlocking right-wing conspiracy”, but also arguing that “connecting the dots between terrorist organizations in NATO countries and a master plan centred in NATO’s military headquarters requires a stretch of facts that Ganser cannot manage.
George Kennan, chief of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff with the task to develop long-term programmes for the achievement of US objectives in US foreign affairs, recommended outright American military intervention should the Italian Communists win. The presidency gladoo the Bladio was held for two years by a member rotating between all the member states in alphabetical order’, hence the ACC did not feature ‘the same predominance of the Great Powers’.
Gerald Hughes Intelligence, Crises and Security: The equipment provided by the CIA was buried in hiding spots across the country in forests, meadows and even under churches and cemeteries. Immediately after the war the hostilities resurfaced and the former comrade in arms became bitter adversaries in the Cold War.
Mrs Isabelle Jacobs at the Office of Security informed the author that it was unlikely that he would get any answers concerning sensitive Gladio questions and advised the author to hand in Gladio questions in writing via the embassy of his home country.
Partisan warfare has taught that in case of doubt first you shoot, and then you go and see who lies on the ground. In wartime, it was to plan stay-behind operations in conjunction with SHAPE; organisers were to activate clandestine bases and organise operations from there. Star Gazete in Turkish. This operation was organized by Finnish general staff officers without foreign help in to hide weapons in order to sustain a large-scale guerrilla warfare in the event the Soviet Union tried to occupy Finland in the aftermath of the Continuation War.
Thus, in one set of these countries the governments themselves would build their own stay-behind nets, counting on activating them from exile to carry on the struggle. We trained the Khmer Rouge in a lot of technical stuff, the officer remembers. The Italian daily La Stampa harshly commented: Therefore a deliberate change of Allied policy was carried out when London and Washington stopped all supplies to the Communist-dominated Italian partisans who due to their heroic resistance to fascism enjoyed great respect among the Italian population.
United States Department of State. Would have been a four-star book had the translation not been so crappy – truly unfortunate. The troops were to be deployed ‘into those zones of the peninsula which are controlled by the government as a demonstration of force’. While PCI leader Achille Occhetto told the crowd in the central Piazza del Popolo that this march will force the government to reveal the dark secrets long held back: After some research I realised that despite its great importance for the most recent political, social and military history of Western Europe and the United States, only very limited work had been carried out on the phenomenon of the secret NATO armies, with no single study on the topic available in English.
They had no voting rights and were from the CIA headquarters of the capital in which the meeting took place As a historian, he must search history deeply, but he didn’t. The Tribune reported that ‘In the high circles where the memorandum and draft order are circulating the proposed unit is known as “Frankfurter’s Gestapo'” in a reference to Supreme Court Justice Frankfurter and the dreaded German secret service Gestapo. Furthermore the organisation you refer to as “Gladio” has never been part of the NATO military structure.
Operation Gladio – Wikipedia
In Iran, Mossadegh embarked glado a socialist agenda and attempted to distribute parts of the oil wealth to the population. Dyer, raise FOIA secrecy exemptions b 1 and b 3 in this context, you unwisely deprive the CIA from its voice and the possibility to take a stand in a Gladio disclosure tladio, which will take place regardless whether the CIA decides to participate or not.
Broccoli was happy to confirm that Great Britain ‘has made its vast experience in the field available to us’ and the Americans have ‘offered to collaborate actively with our organisation by providing men, material presumably free of charge or almost free of charge and maybe funds’. Miller, together with other high-ranking CIA officers, recruited CIA agents who were thereafter flown to Western Europe with the task to erect stay-behind nets. Like the RAF the terror fanser the Red Brigades did not attack mass gatherings of the population, but very selectively targeted individuals whom they thought repre- sented the ‘state apparatus’, such as bankers, generals and ministers whom they 4 kidnapped and often assassinated.
Meyer claimed that the weapons were supplied by Norwegian intelligence. At the same time, however, in what could be interpreted as a combat for spheres of influence the rich CIA gansr offering Gladio arms for free. Arrested and then exiled in Canada and Sweden, Andreas Papandreou later returned to Greece, where he won the electionglaeio the first socialist government of Greece’s post-war history.